What Are The Different Types of Retinal Diseases and Their Treatment Options?
What Are The Different Types of Retinal Diseases and Their Treatment Options?

What Are The Different Types of Retinal Diseases and Their Treatment Options?

The retina is the sensory membrane that lines the inner surface of the back of the eye. It comprises several layers, including one that contains specialized cells called photoreceptors.

The photoreceptor cells in the human eye are categorized as two — rods and cones.

Rod photoreceptors detect motion, provide black-and-white vision, and function well in dim light. On the other hand, cones are responsible for central vision and color vision and perform best in medium and bright light.

In simple words, the retina works as a film of the camera. When the focused light hits the retina, a picture gets created and sent to the brain via optic nerves. The brain decodes the picture, and we get a vision to see this world.

What are the types of Retinal diseases?

Many factors may contribute to causing mild and severe retinal diseases. Understanding the types of it will help you get a proper diagnosis and preventive measures. But, if you are struggling with blurred vision, get in touch with our retina specialist in Mumbai for effective and immediate eye treatment.

Age-related Macular Degeneration: As the name suggests, this disease affects the part of the retina, called the macula. The macula is responsible for offering centralized vision, but any disruption can gradually affect both eyes. However, macular degeneration may cause visual impairment, but the disease usually does not cause peripheral (side) vision loss or total blindness.

The symptoms of age-related macular degeneration include: 

  • Dark or white shades appear in the center of vision.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Changes in perception of faded colors.
  • Straight lines drawn in a textbook may appear wavy or distorted.

Treatment for AMD

Age-related macular degeneration occurs in two forms – Dry form and wet form. There is no effective treatment available for dry macular degeneration, but one can receive expert therapies such as photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy for wet macular degeneration.

Diabetic Retinopathy

A diabetic patient is always at a risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. It refers to an eye condition in which the patient’s high blood sugar levels damage their blood vessels present in the retina. The damaged blood vessels either swell and leak or stop the blood flow in your retina. In both cases, the affected blood vessels will cause disrupted vision.

Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy are:

  • Increase in the number of floaters
  • Blurred vision
  • Change in vision from blur to clear and vice versa
  • Black or dark areas in the field of your vision
  • Poor night vision
  • Colors that appear faded or washed out
  • Loss of vision

Diabetic retinopathy treatment in Mumbai includes photocoagulation, vitrectomy surgery, pharmacotherapy, and so on. The doctor will first evaluate the patient’s medical history and health status before proceeding with any treatment or therapy. Also, good control of blood sugar levels can help delay the progression and development of diabetic retinopathy.

Flashes and Floaters

Floaters appear as small specks, dots, circles, lines, or cobwebs around your vision. Often it feels like these floaters are in front of your eye, but they are actually floating inside your eyes. The flashes are defined as sparks or strands of light that flicker across your visual field. Both these retinal conditions are often harmless. But, they may be a warning sign of something growing more serious inside your eyes. It is in best advice to visit our retinal specialist in Santa Cruz, Mumbai, for effective treatment.

The symptoms of floaters and flashes include:

  • Squiggly lines in the vision
  • Dark spots
  • Spider-like shapes
  • Thread-like strands
  • Small shadowy shapes
  • Inflammation
  • Blood in the eye

Patients with near-sightedness, diabetes, or cataract are at higher risk of developing this disease. 

Eye floater surgery and vitrectomy are the treatment options available for curing flashes and floaters. The procedure involves using incisions to remove the gel-like vitreous present inside your eye. The vitreous is then replaced with a solution similar to it. There are no home remedies available to fix floaters. So, visit your doctor for the best advice.

Retinal Detachment

When the vitreous gel in the back of the eye starts to liquefy, it demands separation from the retina, causing vitreous detachment. If the vitreous gel adheres too firmly to the retina, a retinal tear occurs with a vitreous detachment. A retinal detachment occurs when this fluid leaks through the tear and separates the retina from the back of the eye.

Symptoms of retinal detachment include:

  • The sudden appearance of many floaters — specks that seem to drift through the field of your vision
  • Flashes of light in one or both eyes (photopsia)
  • Blurry vision
  • Reduced side (peripheral) vision
  • A curtain-like shadow over your visual field

Treatments like photocoagulation, laser treatment, vitrectomy surgery, and cryopexy are safe and effective procedures for retinal detachment. But, your doctor will first evaluate your condition and run a few imaging tests to determine the best-suited treatment for your eyes.

Visit Samarth Eye hospital in Santacruz to meet our certified retinal specialists in Mumbai. Let’s discuss your eye-related concerns to reclaim your disrupted vision.

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